Kieran McGovern and the Mallow Shootings of 1921 – Part 2

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Title page of Mallow Shootings

An Account of the Mallow Shootings by Barbara Hammond

The shooting had featured in many acrimonious debates in the House of Commons. In one of these, Labour’s “Jimmy” Thomas M.P., General Secretary of the National Union Of Railwaymen, stated in a speech to the House, on 15 February 1921, that

“We are not going to have our members murdered in cold blood without a proper inquiry and will insist that when our men are on duty during the curfew hours they shall not be dragged off and shot like dogs, without charge or trial”.

He then added, ominously, that

“Disturbing questions demanded answers; and those answers, of themselves, may prove to be disturbing and unsettling of Government policy”.

“Jimmy” was clearly on to something! He specifically referred to the preceding shooting dead of Alice and the wounding of her husband, Captain W.H. King, RIC.

Subsequently, on 14 June 1921, “Jimmy” Thomas’s Labour M.P. colleague and ally, John Joseph (“Jack”) Jones, was moved to greet Sir Hamar Greenwood (Chief Secretary for Ireland) as he entered the Common’s chamber with: “Three cheers for the Chief Assassin”. This caused a spontaeous uproar of protests from Government benches which only encouraged Jones (as he was ordered out of the House by the Speaker) to shout

“You are nothing but a damned gang of assassins, the whole damn lot of you”.

What had could have prompted such an un-parliamentary, oath-laden, outburst?

The shootings at Mallow had forced the Government to set up a Military Court of Inquiry into the affair. Reports (mostly censored in Ireland) of the proceedings were carried in every corner of the Empire and across the world. The Inquiry was presided over by Brigadier General H.R. Cumming, DSO. It heard evidence over a number of days during which it became obvious that something very untoward had taken place at the station on the night in question. RIC County Inspector William King and his wife, Alice, (nee King – not related) had been ambushed as they walked past the station wall. A volley of shots rang out and Alice fell, mortally wounded (she died the following morning). When the shots were heard, large numbers of reinforcements arrived from the town (RIC, Black and Tans, and military, along with members of the dreaded Auxiliaries). Mayhem ensued. Two public bars, one on each platform, were pillaged until, as one newspaper prudently reported “they were innocent of beverage”. Indiscriminate gunfire ensued as Crown Forces wreaked revenge. A number of railwaymen were shot dead while others were seriously wounded. All sorts of cock and bull stories were peddled to the Inquiry team – the general trust being that the ambush on Captain King and his wife had been perpetrated by members of a local IRA Flying Column.

From careful reading of the records (however truncated from censorship) it became apparent to me that not all was as it might appear. Indeed, it was also clear that the President of the Inquiry (Brgd. Gen. Cumming) was not at all impressed with Crown witnesses nor their obviously coached and evasive answers. Cumming, stunned at what was being slowly dragged from one Auxiliary witness in particular, judiciously adjourned the Inquiry ¬ostensibly to visit the site of the shootings. However, within days he too was shot dead during an IRA ambush at Clonbanin, Co. Cork, (in what, to me, appeared to be very unusually accurate circumstances). The Official Report on the Mallow Court of Inquiry (Cmd. 1220; HMSO, 1921: Price 1d), signed–off somewhat hastily by a substitute member of the Inquiry team (in lieu of Brgd. Gen. Cumming, then deceased) is a carefully constructed piece of “official-speak” which, if read one way, points unwaveringly at IRA involvement. However, if read challengingly from all perspectives, and contextualizingly, the Report is, to say the least, ambivalent.

Convinced that the Official Report was, in keeping with what many believed at the time, a “white wash”, I began to carefully sift through all available material. I discovered a little known account, published in 1921 by British war correspondent and journalist, J. L. Hammond, which in turn convinced me that he and his wife had been in Mallow at the time of the shooting and one, or both, had in fact, attended the Inquiry. In his article, Hammond, obliquely though searchingly, parsed the Findings of the Official Report; he was careful to preserve his ‘correspondent/journalist’ status as the proceedings had been subject to strictly enforced censorship regulations. Notwithstanding his caution, he too narrowly escaped being shot dead soon afterwards by Auxiliaries in Tralee, Co. Kerry.

However, pondering Hammond’s circumstances, I realised that his wife, Barbara L., was a formidable women in her own right. She, in collaboration with her husband, had been the co-author of The Labourer trilogy (Village, Town and Skilled). Sure enough, further searching elicited the fact that she had indeed attended the Inquiry and had published a pamphlet, having been specifically commissioned by “Jimmy” Thomas to do so. Both Thomas and “Jack” Jones were suspicious that a cover-up had taken place at the Inquiry in Mallow but both were politically spancelled from speaking outside the privilege of the House – as described above.

It was known that such a pamphlet by Barbara Hammond did exist (it had been referenced, spaingly, by a small number of writers) but what of its whereabouts? Months, indeed years, of searching and probing failed to produce a single trace of an extant copy. The more intensive the search the more it appeared to me that there had been something mentioned by Hammond in her document that had been unsettling of the accepted narrative. L(Lucy) Barbara Hammond, member of The Fabian Society, had made no secret that she not only attended every session of the Inquiry but that she had, indeed, written a detailed twentythree-page report on the procedings for “Jimmy” Thomas.

How come no copy of her report seemed to have survived? Seeking an answer to that question stymied my research for years. My pursuit of an answer – an answer that would, most assuredly, eventually come to pass – was reinforced by my discovery (to be dealt with in my forthcoming publication) that even an entire section of a debate in the House of Lords, prompted by the events that had taken place in Mallow and scathingly delivered by none other than the Archbishop of Canterbury, were not publicly available at the time. Indeed, it was not until 2015, following a Sherlock Holmes-like pursuit (by yours truly) that the glaring “omission” of the entire debate from the digitised Hansard record was finally brought to light. If such a record could, somehow, be “overlooked”, and eventually rumbled, then surely so could Barbara Hammiond’s pamphlet.

The total absence of a copy, anywhere, of the Hammond document led me to conclude that, due to ruthless censorship, all copies had either been purposely withdrawn and/or destroyed soon after publication. I was wholly satisfied that no copy had ever reached the Irish branch of the N.U.R. But where was it?

The “missing bullet”, so to speak, was just that – gone missing without trace.

Until, that is, a casual mention to a colleague in early 2017, about the mysterious vanishing of Barbara Hammond’s report drew an astonishingly innocent response – he had a recollection of having seen a copy of just such a report while undertaking research at the TUC Library based at London Metropolitan University but had not placed any significance on it as it was not relevant to his interest at the time.

A request was sent to the TUC Library which drew the response that, YES, the University did indeed possess such a document. It was to be the 1921 version of what I considered to be an incunabula. Eureka.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE MALLOW SHOOTINGS (JANUARY 31ST 1921)
by
L. BARBARA HAMMOND
(Joint Author of “The Village Labourer”)
Prepared specially for the N.U.R. at the
request of Rt. Hon. J.H. Thomas M.P.
(Price Sixpence)*
Sure enough, the pamphlet proved to be a contemporaneous account of the circumstances that took place on the night in question. It provides some names of police officers and, while analyzing the Official Inquiry Report in detail, states that there were deep suspicions extant in Mallow at the time to the effect that a member (or members) of the Crown Forces was the real culprit who shot Alice King dead. That contemporary conclusion confirms my own firmly held conviction that Captain King had placed an Auxiliary Officer under a disciplinary charge and that the Auxiliary (with an accomplice) had lain in ambush to eliminate Captain King and have the finger of guilt pointed at the IRA. Tragically, in the dark of that drizzly night, with wild shooting at an indistinct target, Alice King was shot dead and her husband wounded.

The report is the final piece of evidence in a complex story, I am now able to conclude my research on the murder of Alice King in January 1921. Someone – perhaps Barbara Hammond or Jimmy Thomas (or, more likely, Jack Jones)– had seen to it that a copy of her report should be preserved so that it would ultimately show up and eventually “beat the insidious system”, albeit sometime in the distant future.

A firm hunch, honed during my years of middle ground endeavours in the region where the foul deed had been perpetrated, that “the truth will always out” has proven its worth – thanks to the TUC LIbrary at London Metropolitan University.

Now, my tentatively named “A SHOT THAT SHOOK AN EMPIRE” is in the final stages of completion, in preparation for submission for publication.

Kieran McGovern,

Dublin.

April 2017.

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Getting Going with Oral Labour History Seminar 3 June

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Britain at Work (B@W) 1945-95 in association with British Universities’ Industrial Relations (BUIRA) IR History Group and Oral History Society (OHS)

Saturday 3 June 2017 11am-4.45pm

Once again, the Britain at Work (B@W) group is organising an Oral Labour History Day. This year’s theme is about how to get going and continue with oral labour history, with examples from different projects and inspiring presentations from those engaged. The day begins with an opening address To Start You Talking by Alan Dein, oral historian and radio documentary presenter, who will reflect on his personal archive of inspirational storytellers – interviews that often began by just stumbling upon a story out of the blue. Then follow round table introductions on projects in which symposium participants are involved. After lunch, there will be presentations concerning inspiring projects by the trade unions, BECTU and CWU, and by Glasgow University on the 1984/5 Miners’ Strike. The day will end with a Robert Wilkinson from the Walthamstow History Workshop who is an expert at obtaining funding and running projects. All those engaged in or with an interest in oral labour history, and particularly trade unionists, are welcome to participate.

B@W is an initiative to capture the memories of people at work between 1945 and 1995, some of which are to found at the TUC Library Collections held at London Metropolitan University (www.unionhistory.info/britainatwork).

University of Westminster, 35 Marylebone Road, London NW1 5LS
(opposite Madame Tussauds and nearly opposite Baker Street tube)
Room C279 (lunch C287)

For further details or to reserve a place, please email Michael Gold (m.gold@rhul.ac.uk) or Linda Clarke (clarkel@wmin.ac.uk)

Programme:
10.30-11.00 Registration
11.00-11.15 Welcome and Introduction: Linda Clarke
11.15-12.00 Keynote: Alan Dein,To start you talking, broadcaster and oral historian (chaired by Linda Clarke)
12.00-13.00 Roundtable: Brief contributions from participants (if they wish), on who they are and their interest in oral labour history (chaired by Michael Gold)
13.00-14.00 Lunch: Room C287
14.00-15.00 Presentations (chaired by Ann Field)
· Mike Dick (BECTU, media and entertainment trade union)
· Norman Candy (CWU – Communication Workers Union)
· Diarmaid Kelliher and Johnnie Crossan (Glasgow University: 1984/5 Miners’ Strike, Kent)
15.00-15.30 Discussion (chaired by Ann Field)
15.30 Break
15.45-16.30 Robert Wilkinson (Walthamstow History Workshop) on Heritage Lottery Foundation – how to apply (chaired by Joanna Bornat), followed by discussion and questions.
16.30-16.45 Closing observations (chaired by Joanna Bornat, Oral History Society)

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Kieran McGovern and the Mallow Shootings of 1921 – Part 1

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Author Kieran McGovern

Kieran McGovern by the grave of Alice King (copyright the author)

Kieran McGovern, a retired conciliation officer and adjudicator, is our guest blogger this week. His research into the murder of railwaymen in 1921 led him to the TUC Library and a report entitled An Account of the Mallow Shootings (January 31st 1921) published by the National Union of Railwaymen (London). This is part 1.

Most of my work was spent in the Mid-West and South Regions of Ireland, an area of intense military conflict during the Irish War of Independence of 1919-1922. Many desperate deeds took place throughout the area during a time also known as “The Black and Tan War”. Not for nothing was it known as “The Rebel Region” – as the many roadside memorial and graveyard headstones throughout the counties amply testify.

In the course of my work, mention had been made in passing of an episode in which a number of railway workers had been shot dead and others wounded at Mallow Railway Station on 31 January 1921. Trade Unionism and comradeship ran deep throughout the region; “militancy” in industrial relations matters had not fallen too far from the tree of independence, so to speak.

During a previous research project I had encountered a Nora Lloyd,  living in London, and in our correspondence Nora mentioned that her aunt, Alice King, had been shot during the Irish War of Independence. Nora had written a novel, “The Young May Moon” (T. Nelson & Sons; 1935), which was loosely based on the event. Imagine my surprise to discover, after much research, and by pure happen-chance, that the shooting dead of Alice King had taken place at Mallow Station and that it was as a direct consequence of her shooting that the railwaymen, of whom I had heard about previously, had also been shot dead and wounded. Much further research, over a protracted period of time, gave rise to my discovering the unmarked grave of Alice King in Saint Gobnait’s Graveyard, Mallow. Eventually, on the day I visited the graveyard for the first time to find the spot where she lay buried, the caretaker was able to dust-off and search his large Dickensian-like record book and bring me to the precise spot. He told me, quietly and reverently as he pointed to the overgrown rectangle of earth, surrounded as it was by a low granite plinth, that he, and his caretaker-father before him, had often pondered who had been buried in that one single unmarked and unattended grave and why no one ever enquired about it. They knew, nearly personally, something about every other grave in “their” cemetery – but not this one. But now, with my arrival, the mystery of the grave was solved for them as it was for me. The man was genuinely near to tears as he listened to the tale.

With the passage of time Nora had unfortunately passed away and her daughter, Bridget (living in London), had joined me in our common search. Bridget, along with a number of other descendants and relatives across the globe all concluded that a marker stone would have to be erected on what, until then, was thought to be an unmarked grave. In the meantime, having visited Mallow a few times, I had tidied up the grave area and had discovered a crucifix-shaped stone that had fallen and lay virtually invisible and overgrown on the grave; it was a simple headstone that had been erected for Alice over eighty years before.

Acting on behalf of Bridget and in consultation with the diasporadic Patten/King descendants, I had a grave marker made locally and erected. Bridget and her extended group came to Ireland and we all joined in a ceremony at the graveside. It was a moving, yet memorable, occasion. This including local encouragement inspired me to write a book and so I set about the task with enthusiasm, building on material already collected.  On my visits to Mallow I had met many who knew of the event. I read all the relevant Witness Statements (these were written in the 1950’s, by participants, but embargoed until all were deceased) held in the Irish Bureau of Military Archives. I followed up on leads by studying archives at the Irish National Library Manuscript Department, at Kew in London and at many, many other repositories. All available contemporary newspaper reports (Ireland, U.K., USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, S. Africa, France, etc.) were searched in detail. 

Part 2 next week.

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Visit from TSSA students to TUC Library Collections

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TSSA student group visit

Thanks to TUC tutor Dave Smith for organising this visit from his TSSA student group (and thanks to Lesley Pollock for the photo). As well as organising a display of union related resources, we had a focus on historical transport unions.

You can see more examples on our Pinterest page.

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TUC Library stand at TUC Young Workers Conference

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TUC Library stand

Thanks to Kathryn Mackridge, Policy and Campaigns Support Officer at the TUC for inviting us to have a stall at this year’s TUC Young Workers Conference. Delegates discussed themes such as “Employment, Economy and Equality”  and we tried to reflect this in our choice of display.

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Workers’ Educational Association featured in new book about Citizenship

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Co-editor John Griffiths writes about the publication, having spent time researching in the TUC Library.

The new book titled The Citizen: Past and Present has been published by Massey University Press, New Zealand. (2017), and contains 11 chapters, the last of which focuses on the history of the WEA as an association for the promotion of citizenship in the 20th/21st century.

Cover of new book

Quite how citizenship has been defined at points across time and whose agenda lies behind the notion of citizenship is discussed in chapter 11 by co-editor John Griffiths, Senior Lecturer in History at Massey University. For his chapter titled From Citizens to Dilettantes and Back Again? The Workers’ Educational Association and its Students Since 1945 John explored the archive of the WEA, held within the TUC archive. He used annual reports (1945-) of the Association’s districts, the Association’s journal The Highway, various pamphlets written by WEA administrators which contemplated the Association’s objectives and purpose and the many volumes written about the WEA since its inception, also held in the TUC archives.

WEA publication

The Plan for Education, published by the Workers’ Educational Association in 1942, outlines their proposals for the restructuring of educational policy after the war and includes a special appendix on agriculture and rural education.

The Association had prided itself in the years before World War II in preparing students for active citizenship in areas such as local government, parish council, school and hospital governance. Several members of the post 1945-Attlee government (1945-51) had connections with the WEA. After 1945, if not before however, it was noted by several observers that the Association was becoming more dilettante, in that those taking WEA classes were more middle-class than working-class and ‘education for social purpose’ was being diluted. This concerned the Association for at least the next three decades.

A change in direction was noted in the 1970s as the WEA also began to offer education for the socially disadvantaged – known as ‘Russell type work’ – taking its name from the report into adult education of 1973, headed by Lionel Russell. This work was seen as more socially relevant and by the later 20th century placed the WEA in a position as a significant organisation for offering citizenship and social inclusion which chimed with New Labour’s objectives (1997-2010), particularly the introduction of citizenship instruction in schools. This chapter sits alongside other contributions which examine what citizenship has meant at points across history, from the very early civilizations to the modern day.

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The Clarion Van – Margaret Powell remembers her grandfather

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Joe Tarrant, Margaret Powell’s grandfather, stands to the right of the Clarion Van (marked with a cross. Thank you to Margaret Powell for her permission. Copyright Margaret Powell )

We have a guest blog post this week from Margaret Powell who very kindly sent this fantastic photo in to us of her grandfather, Joe Tarrant. I asked her for more information and what the banner says. She wrote -

The banner says Clarion Van London Tour – May, but I can’t make out the year. My granddad, Joe Tarrant, 1885-1980 was a keen cyclist all his life. He looks very young on here, so I imagine it’s about 1900. He lived at Barnardo’s homes from the age of 19 months, but went back home(to London) when he was about 14, presumably because he was of working age, so I don’t think we can date it before then. I have been reading about the Clarion movement online and it makes interesting reading. Granddad moved to Bristol for his work as a tinsmith and later to Liverpool. He was always involved in the tobacco industry as far as I know. (Wills and the British American Tobacco Company).

We have a few more photos and publications about the Clarion in the TUC Library (see below).

Later period Clarion Van, 1914 (Copyright TUC Library Collections.

Robert Blatchford founded ‘The Clarion’ as a weekly Socialist newspaper. Clarion readers organised various activities e.g. cycling clubs, choral societies, rambling clubs, often meeting in Clarion club-houses. The Clarion Vans were mobile propaganda vehicles, carrying Socialist leaflets, newspapers and speakers to rural areas, often accompanied at weekends by “Clarionettes” on bicycles. This photo shows the dedication of a new National Clarion Van designed by Walter Crane, at Shrewsbury on 12 April, 1914. Fred Bramley (TUC General Secretary 1923-1925) is seated, holding hat, at centre of the photograph. Clarion Vans continued touring until 1929.

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Unveiling of Blue Plaque in honour of Mary Macarthur

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TUC Women’s Committee at the unveiling ceremony

The TUC Library attended the unveiling of an English Heritage Blue Plaque in commemoration of suffragist and trade unionist Mary Macarthur at her former home in Golders Green (42 Woodstock Road) last night. The day was chosen because it preceded International Women’s Day and the start of the annual TUC Women’s Conference.

Mary Macarthur (13 August 1880 – 1 January 1921) was the general secretary of the Women’s Trade Union League and was involved in the formation of the National Federation of Women Workers and National Anti-Sweating League. In 1909 Mary led the women chain makers of Cradley Heath to victory in their fight for a minimum wage and led a strike to force employers to implement the rise. Speeches were made by, Mary Bousted TUC President, Vicky Knight, Chair of the Women’s Committee and James Deane, Mary’s grandson.

The TUC Library has a number of collections relating to Mary Macarthur.

Mary Macarthur speaking at a rally in Trafalgar Square about the box makers strike Aug 1908, Corruganza, Tooting London

 

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Mary Quaile, the TUC and Easton Lodge, 1926

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  Margaret Bondfield, Countess of Warwick and Mary Quaile in grounds of Easton Lodge


Margaret Bondfield, Countess of Warwick and Mary Quaile in grounds of Easton Lodge

Guest post from the Mary Quaile Club https://maryquaileclub.wordpress.com/
History, activism and discussion in the Greater Manchester area @MaryQuaileClub

In 1924 Mary Quaile was elected onto the General Council of the TUC, and with Julia Varley attended the National Conference of Labour Women, a conference of International Women Trade Unionists in Vienna and the Third International Trade Union Congress.

At home she now took part in delegations to lobby government ministers on issues including the Labour Government’s unemployment policy. In 1925 Mary was again elected onto the General Council. In 1926 Mary did not stand again for the General Council, but she continued to attend Congress as a delegate from the TGWU until 1931.

Recently we have come across pictures of Mary at the official handover of Easton Lodge to the trade union movement as a working class college. Ironically, a house maybe not that different from where she got her first job as a domestic.

Easton Lodge was owned by Countess Warwick (1861-1938) who, by 1926, had been a member of the socialist movement for over 25 years. It was an era in which a Countess standing as a prospective Labour candidate was not seen as bizarre!

TUC General Council with Mary Quaile on the right  on the right

TUC General Council with Mary Quaile on the right on the right

In 1926 Countess Warwick handed over the historic building and sumptuous park and grounds to the General Council of the TUC who paid a visit. It was dubbed “Labour’s Chequers.”

(Photos from the TUC Library Collections)

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Turn of the century union banner saved

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Southampton Boilermakers and Shipbuilders Union Banner

Guest blogger Michael Walker, Unison regional Officer tells us the story of how he saved a rare turn of the Century union banner from being sold into private hands.

Soon after visiting the Labour History Museum in the early 1980′s then at the old Limehouse town hall, I secured a copy of the late John Gorman’s “Banner Bright”. The rich history and illustrated pictures of banners through the ages left a major impression upon me and so many others. The most beautiful and striking banners illustrated in Banner bright were those executed by George Tutill of 83 City Road, London.

Tutill banners are of such rarity they are talked about in almost hushed tones and people come from around the world to see them at the Peoples History Museum in Manchester. Tutills banner are exhibited as works of art in their own right.

The odd Tutill banner would turn up from time to time.

However, little did I imagine that I would play a part in uncover another Tutill trade union banner

In August I began to hear rumours of what looked like a freemasons lodge banner recently retrieved from under the stage of a workingmen’s club in Woolston, close to the old shipyards in Southampton

I soon established that this was infact a Boilermakers Lodge (Union) banner, but before I could investigate further, I heard alarming news that the owner was thinking of auctioning the banner. Thus entering the murky world of a friend of a friend a message was communicated to the owner, and despite what seemed to be long periods of email silences, when I feared for the worse that the banner would be snapped up by a private collector or the owner had decided not to sell, I was relieved to get a message that he agreed to sell the banner to us (thank you Bromley Hospitals UNISON branch) for an undisclosed “finders fee” which was significantly less that the true value of the banner, on the condition that it went to an appropriate “good home”.

We were warned that the banner was in a fragile state but on the up side it was in a 15 foot wooden banner box.

Getting a 15ft banner into a vehicle is difficult and we had to hire a van especially to collect the box,

We left destined for Southampton in a truck not really sure if the owner had had second thoughts regarding the banner, but when we arrived the banner was ready for collection and in its box. After opening the four metal catches we discovered inside a tightly bound brightly coloured blue and red banner and visible immediately in-between the fringe of tassels the trade mark hand painted stamp of G.Tutill 83 City Road, London, clearly visible, also in the box was one set of Tutill banner holders and ceremonial toppers for the top of the banner poles.

Trade mark hand painted stamp of G.Tutill 83 City Road, London

Interestingly the newspapers surrounding the banner were Daily Herald’s from 1928 suggesting that possibly the banners last outing had been in that year,

Getting the banner into the truck still proved difficult and had to be carefully positioned at an angle to fit in the van. But thanks to the patience of my colleague Allen Reilly the banner was strapped into the van and brought back into the arms of the Labour Movement.

When opportunity allowed we unraveled the banner revealing the beautiful silk golden swirl designs and brass tags so distinctive of Tutill banners, Prominent on one side is the ship the Tynemouth Castle and on the other side the ceremonial emblems of the Boilermakers, Steel, Iron & Shipbuilders Society with the legend Southampton Branch. This organisation became the Boilermakers union and would end up merging into what is now the GMB in 1982.

A major strike took place in the Southampton shipyards in 1890 and I suspect the banner dates from around 1900.

The banner is presently in a very fragile (please note I have digitally enhanced the border which is damaged in places) We are obviously very keen for it to be assessed by the textile conservation at the Peoples History museum.

Hopefully, funding will be forthcoming for its proper preservation , especially as this is the only Tutill banner from Southampton’s proud trade union history, I am aware of that has survived to-date.

The moral of this story should be never give up searching for those trade union banners, not all will be Tutill’s but they remain an important part of our Movements history

Michael Walker
Unison regional Officer
September 2016

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