An Account of the Mallow Shootings by Barbara Hammond
The shooting had featured in many acrimonious debates in the House of Commons. In one of these, Labour’s “Jimmy” Thomas M.P., General Secretary of the National Union Of Railwaymen, stated in a speech to the House, on 15 February 1921, that
“We are not going to have our members murdered in cold blood without a proper inquiry and will insist that when our men are on duty during the curfew hours they shall not be dragged off and shot like dogs, without charge or trial”.
He then added, ominously, that
“Disturbing questions demanded answers; and those answers, of themselves, may prove to be disturbing and unsettling of Government policy”.
“Jimmy” was clearly on to something! He specifically referred to the preceding shooting dead of Alice and the wounding of her husband, Captain W.H. King, RIC.
Subsequently, on 14 June 1921, “Jimmy” Thomas’s Labour M.P. colleague and ally, John Joseph (“Jack”) Jones, was moved to greet Sir Hamar Greenwood (Chief Secretary for Ireland) as he entered the Common’s chamber with: “Three cheers for the Chief Assassin”. This caused a spontaeous uproar of protests from Government benches which only encouraged Jones (as he was ordered out of the House by the Speaker) to shout
“You are nothing but a damned gang of assassins, the whole damn lot of you”.
What had could have prompted such an un-parliamentary, oath-laden, outburst?
The shootings at Mallow had forced the Government to set up a Military Court of Inquiry into the affair. Reports (mostly censored in Ireland) of the proceedings were carried in every corner of the Empire and across the world. The Inquiry was presided over by Brigadier General H.R. Cumming, DSO. It heard evidence over a number of days during which it became obvious that something very untoward had taken place at the station on the night in question. RIC County Inspector William King and his wife, Alice, (nee King – not related) had been ambushed as they walked past the station wall. A volley of shots rang out and Alice fell, mortally wounded (she died the following morning). When the shots were heard, large numbers of reinforcements arrived from the town (RIC, Black and Tans, and military, along with members of the dreaded Auxiliaries). Mayhem ensued. Two public bars, one on each platform, were pillaged until, as one newspaper prudently reported “they were innocent of beverage”. Indiscriminate gunfire ensued as Crown Forces wreaked revenge. A number of railwaymen were shot dead while others were seriously wounded. All sorts of cock and bull stories were peddled to the Inquiry team – the general trust being that the ambush on Captain King and his wife had been perpetrated by members of a local IRA Flying Column.
From careful reading of the records (however truncated from censorship) it became apparent to me that not all was as it might appear. Indeed, it was also clear that the President of the Inquiry (Brgd. Gen. Cumming) was not at all impressed with Crown witnesses nor their obviously coached and evasive answers. Cumming, stunned at what was being slowly dragged from one Auxiliary witness in particular, judiciously adjourned the Inquiry ¬ostensibly to visit the site of the shootings. However, within days he too was shot dead during an IRA ambush at Clonbanin, Co. Cork, (in what, to me, appeared to be very unusually accurate circumstances). The Official Report on the Mallow Court of Inquiry (Cmd. 1220; HMSO, 1921: Price 1d), signed–off somewhat hastily by a substitute member of the Inquiry team (in lieu of Brgd. Gen. Cumming, then deceased) is a carefully constructed piece of “official-speak” which, if read one way, points unwaveringly at IRA involvement. However, if read challengingly from all perspectives, and contextualizingly, the Report is, to say the least, ambivalent.
Convinced that the Official Report was, in keeping with what many believed at the time, a “white wash”, I began to carefully sift through all available material. I discovered a little known account, published in 1921 by British war correspondent and journalist, J. L. Hammond, which in turn convinced me that he and his wife had been in Mallow at the time of the shooting and one, or both, had in fact, attended the Inquiry. In his article, Hammond, obliquely though searchingly, parsed the Findings of the Official Report; he was careful to preserve his ‘correspondent/journalist’ status as the proceedings had been subject to strictly enforced censorship regulations. Notwithstanding his caution, he too narrowly escaped being shot dead soon afterwards by Auxiliaries in Tralee, Co. Kerry.
However, pondering Hammond’s circumstances, I realised that his wife, Barbara L., was a formidable women in her own right. She, in collaboration with her husband, had been the co-author of The Labourer trilogy (Village, Town and Skilled). Sure enough, further searching elicited the fact that she had indeed attended the Inquiry and had published a pamphlet, having been specifically commissioned by “Jimmy” Thomas to do so. Both Thomas and “Jack” Jones were suspicious that a cover-up had taken place at the Inquiry in Mallow but both were politically spancelled from speaking outside the privilege of the House – as described above.
It was known that such a pamphlet by Barbara Hammond did exist (it had been referenced, spaingly, by a small number of writers) but what of its whereabouts? Months, indeed years, of searching and probing failed to produce a single trace of an extant copy. The more intensive the search the more it appeared to me that there had been something mentioned by Hammond in her document that had been unsettling of the accepted narrative. L(Lucy) Barbara Hammond, member of The Fabian Society, had made no secret that she not only attended every session of the Inquiry but that she had, indeed, written a detailed twentythree-page report on the procedings for “Jimmy” Thomas.
How come no copy of her report seemed to have survived? Seeking an answer to that question stymied my research for years. My pursuit of an answer – an answer that would, most assuredly, eventually come to pass – was reinforced by my discovery (to be dealt with in my forthcoming publication) that even an entire section of a debate in the House of Lords, prompted by the events that had taken place in Mallow and scathingly delivered by none other than the Archbishop of Canterbury, were not publicly available at the time. Indeed, it was not until 2015, following a Sherlock Holmes-like pursuit (by yours truly) that the glaring “omission” of the entire debate from the digitised Hansard record was finally brought to light. If such a record could, somehow, be “overlooked”, and eventually rumbled, then surely so could Barbara Hammiond’s pamphlet.
The total absence of a copy, anywhere, of the Hammond document led me to conclude that, due to ruthless censorship, all copies had either been purposely withdrawn and/or destroyed soon after publication. I was wholly satisfied that no copy had ever reached the Irish branch of the N.U.R. But where was it?
The “missing bullet”, so to speak, was just that – gone missing without trace.
Until, that is, a casual mention to a colleague in early 2017, about the mysterious vanishing of Barbara Hammond’s report drew an astonishingly innocent response – he had a recollection of having seen a copy of just such a report while undertaking research at the TUC Library based at London Metropolitan University but had not placed any significance on it as it was not relevant to his interest at the time.
A request was sent to the TUC Library which drew the response that, YES, the University did indeed possess such a document. It was to be the 1921 version of what I considered to be an incunabula. Eureka.
AN ACCOUNT OF THE MALLOW SHOOTINGS (JANUARY 31ST 1921)
L. BARBARA HAMMOND
(Joint Author of “The Village Labourer”)
Prepared specially for the N.U.R. at the
request of Rt. Hon. J.H. Thomas M.P.
Sure enough, the pamphlet proved to be a contemporaneous account of the circumstances that took place on the night in question. It provides some names of police officers and, while analyzing the Official Inquiry Report in detail, states that there were deep suspicions extant in Mallow at the time to the effect that a member (or members) of the Crown Forces was the real culprit who shot Alice King dead. That contemporary conclusion confirms my own firmly held conviction that Captain King had placed an Auxiliary Officer under a disciplinary charge and that the Auxiliary (with an accomplice) had lain in ambush to eliminate Captain King and have the finger of guilt pointed at the IRA. Tragically, in the dark of that drizzly night, with wild shooting at an indistinct target, Alice King was shot dead and her husband wounded.
The report is the final piece of evidence in a complex story, I am now able to conclude my research on the murder of Alice King in January 1921. Someone – perhaps Barbara Hammond or Jimmy Thomas (or, more likely, Jack Jones)– had seen to it that a copy of her report should be preserved so that it would ultimately show up and eventually “beat the insidious system”, albeit sometime in the distant future.
A firm hunch, honed during my years of middle ground endeavours in the region where the foul deed had been perpetrated, that “the truth will always out” has proven its worth – thanks to the TUC LIbrary at London Metropolitan University.
Now, my tentatively named “A SHOT THAT SHOOK AN EMPIRE” is in the final stages of completion, in preparation for submission for publication.